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They add sufficient amount of organic matter in soil. (i) The food prepared from the produce of genetically modified crops (GM crops) is called genetically modified food (GM food). Sustainable development may be defined in several ways. The major bioethical ways concerning to biotechnology, are as follows: a. They are ideal for human food. They are as follows: The term ‘biofertilizers’ denotes all the ‘nutrient inputs of biological origin for plant growth’. Generally, transgenic crops are called genetically modified crops or GM crops. Thus, bioethics makes a set of standards which is used to regulate our activities in relation to the whole bio-kingdom. For example, one patent covers ‘all transgenic plants of family Brassicaceae/mustard family. Ban on genetic food. The use of biotechnology in medicine is known as Medicinal Biotechnology. In India, food grade Spirulina at two main centres, one at MCRC, Chennai and the other at Central Food Technology and Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore. Plagiarism Prevention 4. The biotechnologists involved in the production of transgenic crops are aware of above mentioned aspects, and efforts are being made to use other genes in place of antibiotic resistance genes. The mycorrhizal biofertilizers make the host plants available with certain elements, increase longevity and surface area of roots, reduce plant response to soil stresses, and increase resistance in plants. Genetically Modified Crops 2. Thus, Ti-plasmid mediated transformation of several plants has been done, e.g., tobacco, cotton, tomato, com, etc. e. Biotechnology is only used for fulfillment of the motive of selfishness by humans. Ethics includes ‘moral principles’ that control or influence a person’s behaviour. Azolla supplies N, increases organic matter and fertility in soil and shows tolerance against heavy metals. Sustainable agriculture primarily has renewable resources, which cause minimum pollution and maintain the optimum yield level. These grains (kernels) will be used for the extraction of brazzein, which can give a serious jolt to the countries exporting large quantities of sugar. The possible defences against bioweapons include use of gas mask, vaccination, administration of specific antibiotics, and decontamination. It lowers sugar level in blood of diabetics. When animals are used for production of certain pharmaceutical proteins, they are treated as a ‘factory’ or ‘machine’. The advanced or industrialised nations are generally rich in technology and financial resources. Bacillus thuringiensis, was the first bio-pesticide to be used on a commercial scale. Expression of the coat protein produces resistance in the host to this virus. Besides ethical arguments, techniques of biotechnology are used in the production of things on a much larger scale and at a much faster rate. It is a growing concern all over the world that the genetic food may pose risks to human health, ecology and the environment. Cry protein (toxin) and an inert carrier. The main considerations for application of biotechnology in waste treatment are technically and economically reasonable rate of biodegradability or detoxication of substances during biotechnological treatment, big volume of treated wastes, and ability of natural microorganisms to degrade substances. This enhances the efficiency of catalysis and reduces the competitive oxygenase function (as RuBP Case also behaves as an oxygenase). But, now a days, patents are also being granted for biological entities and for products derived from them, such patents are called biopatents, e.g., neem and its products; haldi and its products. The infective conidia, spores, etc., of the antagonistic fungi reach the haemocoel of the insect either through integument or mouth. Biotechnology contributes in several ways for enhancement of the sustainability of agriculture. Biology, Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, Applications of Biotechnology. Biotechnological study as practical to bioprocessing in the bulk of rising countries, targets development and improvement of customary fermentation processes. (i) The transgene product (GM food) may cause toxicity and produce allergies. 3 . The biofertilizers increase physico-chemical properties of soil, such as soil structure, texture, water holding capacity, etc. The products are marketed in India and abroad. The commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis contain a mixture of spores. Biotech Application in Agriculture. The fungus and plant root association is called mycorrhiza. These bacteria will become resistant to the concerned antibiotic and become unmanageable. They use free energy from sunlight and carbon-dioxide from air, while bacteria and fungi require organic wastes, as they do not contain chlorophylls, the major components of substrates are the raw materials which contain sugars, starch, lignocellulose from woody plants and herbs having residue with nitrogen and phosphorus contents and other raw materials. (ii) The bio-resources are analysed for identification of valuable biomolecules. What is Biotechnology? Uses of biotechnology in animal production include development of vaccines to protect animals from disease, production of several calves from one embryo (cloning), increase of animal growth rate, and rapid disease detection (7). Scientists have been working on the new techniques in the agricultural sector, food processing industries, etc. (iii) Modifies an existing biosynthetic pathway, and therefore, a new end product is obtained. (British or processes to manufacturing and Biotechnologist) This biotechnology application is very important in healthcare because it allows for the mass production of safe and more effective medicines. They may be in free living or in symbiotic forms. Agro-chemical based agriculture . For example, a plant, Pentadiplandra brazzeana of West Africa, produces a protein called brazzein. Institutions and multinational companies of industrialised advanced nations are collecting and exploiting the bio-resources, as follows: (i) They collect and patent the genetic resources themselves. Any such development which reduces the use of non-renewable resources, and level of pollution, will definitely enhance the sustainability of agriculture. Biopiracy 8. (ii) The change in genotype can be controlled to some extent as only the transgene is added into the crop genome. 1) “Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, system or process to manufacturing and service industries." A variety of substrates are used for SCP production. For the first time the European Commission’s Scientific Advisors have recommended that a genetically engineered potato be withheld from the market because they cannot guarantee its safety. For example, Some variants of fungus found in … A biomolecule is a compound produced by a living organism. In recent years, NBRI, Lucknow and CFTRI, Mysore, have established centres for mass production of SCP from Spirulina (cyanobacteria). However, when a transgene is introduced into the genome of an organism, it can achieve one of the following characteristics: (ii) Produces a protein which itself produces the desired phenotype. Use of animals in biotechnology is cruelty towards animals which causes great suffering to them. Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products.Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. (iv) Sometimes, even traditional knowledge itself of other countries may be patented. This makes the phosphorus available to the plants. It has been recommended by medicinal experts for reducing body weight, cholesterol and for better health. But perhaps the biggest application of biotechnology is in human health. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. According to the international Society for environmental Biotechnology the environmental Biotechnology is defined as an environment that helps to develop, efficiently use and regulate the biological systems and prevent the environment from pollution or from contamination of land, air and water have work efficiently to sustain an environment â€" friendly Society...... Read More, Top Biotechnology Schools and Colleges in USA, Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine, Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture, Applications of Biotechnology in Food Processing, Applications of Biotechnology in Environmental, System changed for Spinal Surgeries that give less pain, Treatment for Hair Growth using human pluripotent stem cells, Particularly similar sequencing: captivating an all-at-once move toward to genetic testing in cancer, Dissect the reason of the Black bereavement. One can define agricultural biotechnology as a set of scientific techniques which can improve plants, micro-organisms and animals on the basis of DNA and its concepts. Medicine is by means of biotechnology techniques so much in diagnosing and treating dissimilar diseases.... Read More, Biotechnology is regularly deliberated the same with the biomedical research, but there are a lot of other industries which take benefit of biotech method for studying, cloning and varying genes. c. Introduction of a transgene from one species into another species threats integrity of species. In such cases, transgenic crops should not be grown in close vicinity of their wild relatives. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 2. Biotechnology is widely used in different fields to modify and produce a useful product for human benefits. d. Transfer of human genes into animals or vice-versa is great ethic threat for humanness. As we know, nitrogen is available in atmosphere in high amount in the form of gas. Spirulina (SCP) is a rich source of protein, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, crude fibres, etc., it is used as supplemented food in diets of under-nourished children, adults and old aged people in developing countries. This crystal is toxic and proteinaceous in nature. It is free from pollution hazards and increases soil fertility. Biotechnology Applications In Medicine You may have already learnt about Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. The external mycorrhiza also called ‘ectophytic mycorrhiza’ are confined to the outer region of the roots, whereas the internal mycorrhiza are found deeply in the root cells. Genetically engineered crop based agriculture . Applications Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. The suitable preparations of such micro-organisms for control of insects are called ‘microbial insecticides’. The following points highlight the four main applications of biotechnology in agriculture:- 1. Get to know the major domains and applications of biotechnology ranging from health & medicine, agriculture, food processing & preservation, chemicals, and environment. Biotechnology is a very huge field and its applications are used in a variety of fields of science such as agriculture and medicine. Usually, plant diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. In modem days, in agricultural practices non-renewable resources are utilised which cause pollution. (i) Any gene (from any organism or chemically synthesised) can be used as a transgene. Now-a-days, biotechnology, particularly recombinant DNA technology, is used for exploitation of the biological world by various ways. This is a case where the transgene product is directly responsible for the production of the phenotype of interest. Biotechnology applies the knowledge of biology to enhance and improve the environment, health, and food supply. It is applied and it is used to study the natural environment. Biotechnology is the field that exploits living organisms to make technological advances in various fields for the sustainable development of mankind. Huma… Spores of B. anthracis can be produced and stored in a dry form keeping them viable for several decades in storage or after release. Investigations are on to check such menace. Industrial Applications of Biotechnology:. Applications of biotechnology in the food industry: Enzymes Last Updated : 06 September 2006. Phosphate is made soluble by some bacteria and by some fungi that form association with roots of higher plants. Since the time immemorial a number of micro-organisms have been used as part of human diet. Introduction to the applications and benefits of agricultural biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to develop plants, animals, and microorganisms. Gene therapy is a technique to remove genetic defect in embryo or child. Bioethics. This is connected with beliefs and principles about what is right or wrong, morally correct or acceptable. Here the fungi absorb their food from the roots and in response are beneficial to the plants. The applications are: 1. The United States, the world’s biggest producers of genetically modified foods, has also threatened New Zealand to ban his genetically engineered foods. Disease-Resistant Varieties 5. Genetic engineering has been also used in the development of such crop varieties which are resistant to certain diseases. Local people of West Africa have known and used the super-sweet berries of this plant for centuries. Some other micro-organisms have long been used as human food, e.g., the blue green alga (cyanobacteria), Spirulina, and the fungi commonly called edible mushrooms. Each week, every European eats an average of 11 kg of food. Since the early 1980s, transgenic animals have been created with increased growth rates, enhanced lean muscle mass, enhanced resistance to disease or improved use of dietary phosphorous to lessen the environmental impacts of animal manure. A transgenic crop that contains and expresses a transgene (i.e., functional foreign gene). It has been argued that the above mentioned features of GM foods may be harmful and problem making if such foods are consumed. On the basis of ethical and political reasons, such bio-patents have been opposed from time to time by different societies of the world. The most successful approach for the production of virus resistant plants is the transfer of the virus coat protein gene into the plants. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society. This includes a set of standards by which a community regulates its behaviour and decides as to which activity is legitimate and which is not. The phenomenon of fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by biological means is known as ‘diazotrophy’ or ‘biological nitrogen fixation’ and these prokaryotes as ‘diazotrophs’ or ‘nitrogen fixers’ (nif). When big organisations and multinational companies exploit patent biological resources or bio-resources of other nations without proper authorisation from the countries concerned; such exploitation is called bio-piracy. Enzymes, the naturally-occurring proteins which allow all the biochemical processes of life to occur, are found in all food raw materials. Alcohol production is one of the most basic applications of industrial biotechnology. Tomato variety ‘Flavr Savr’ is an example where expression of a native tomato gene has been blocked. Micro-propagation 2. Recent studies on the use of mycopesticides for the control of insect pests are of much value. For example, fruit softening is promoted by the enzyme polygalacturonase, which is responsible for degrading pectin. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. This word denotes, the use of harmful bacteria as weapons of war. • Biotechnology is the science which combines biology with technology that is being used rampantly in pharmaceutical sector. Biotechnology has given rise to a technique known as gene therapy. Application of Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Industry 10. These fungi solubilise phosphorus, produce plant growth promoting substances and protect host plants from soil pathogens. The application of Biotechnology to solve the environmental problems in the environment and in the ecosystems is called Environmental Biotechnology. However, biologists should play an important role in creating awareness about the impact of misuse of biology on the human society and the whole Bio-kingdom. Privacy Policy 8. Sustainable Agriculture 4. This helps in treatment of large number of diabetes patients. Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are already in cultivation in advanced countries, such as U.S.A. and many European countries. This technique involves transfer of a normal gene that works over non-functional gene. Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture Initially, patents were granted for industrial inventions by a particular company, such as patent medicines, etc. The term ‘microbial protein’ was replaced by a new term ‘single cell protein’ (SCP) during first International Conference on ‘microbial protein’ held in 1967, at Masachusetts, U.S.A. However, it has forced the governments of many countries to rethink on introduction of such crop. The dried cells of micro-organisms, such as algae, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, used as food or feed are collectively known as microbial protein. Expression of native gene can be blocked by several methods. Microbial pesticides are produced by many multi-national companies by using viruses, bacteria and fungi. Biowar 9. SCP provides a valuable protein-rich supplement in human diet. This will lower the risk of food-borne diseases. A bio-fertilizer is a substance that contains living organisms that, when … The microbial insecticides are non-hazardous, non-phytotoxic and selective in their action. Content Filtrations 6. Micro-organisms are widely used for preparation of a variety of fermented foods, such as cheese, butter, leavened bread, idlis and several other bakery products. The mycorrhiza may be external or internal. TOS 7. Applications of biotechnology in Agriculture :- Applications of biotechnology for increasing food production – 1 . Copyright 10. Image Guidelines 5. 2 . Using biotechnology, scientists work to develop environment- friendly alternatives to fossil fuels and plastics; new medicines, vaccines and disease diagnostic tools; … The synthetic insecticides, generally affect non-target organisms, and many beneficial organisms for agriculture, are killed. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. Bio-resources of third world countries have always been commercially exploited by the industrialised nations without an adequate compensation. This is used only for the benefit of human beings. Algae which contain chlorophylls, do not require organic wastes. Single Cell Protein (SCP) 6. Dictionary meaning of patent is, ‘an official right to be the only person to make, use or sell a product or an invention’. Biotechnology has been used in various ways, from ‘unnatural’ to ‘detrimental’ to ‘biodiversity’. The following points highlight the top nine applications of biotechnology. Three critical research areas of biotechnology are: (i) Providing the best catalyst in the form of improved organism usually a microbe or pure enzyme. Now a day, many pilot plants for the production of Spirulina powder have been established in Japan, U.S.A. and European countries. The Cry protein is toxic to larvae of certain insects. Now, the hirudin is purified and used medicinally. Pathogenic micro­organisms which kill insects are viruses (DNA containing viruses), bacteria (e.g.. Bacillus thuringiensis), and fungi (e.g., Aspergillus, Fusarium, etc.). Spores of this bacterium produce the insecticidal Cry protein. Biotechnology has a significant role in agriculture by modifying … SCP as therapeutic and natural medicine. In general, plant growth, survival and yield are increased. It is applied and it … Rhizobial biofertilizer can fix 50-150 kg N/ha/annum. B. thuringiensis preparations have been produced in U.S.A., France, Russia and U.K. in the form of wettable powder and water suspensions. Here, the transgene product itself is the desired product. Biotechnology enables improvements that are not possible with the traditional crossing of related plant species alone. Such varieties are successful in reducing yield losses due to various crop diseases, thus they enhance agricultural production. This approach also reduces pollution. This science has proved to be a boon especially in manufacturing of vaccinations and genetic testing. Preparations of viruses or their products have been developed as effective bio-pesticides and being successfully used for the control of insect pests in agriculture and horticulture. Examples of nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms are bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Modern biotechnology has offered opportunities to produce more nutritious and better tasting Production of polygalacturonase was blocked in the transgenic tomato variety ‘Flavr Savr’. Biotechnology is a very broad domain and finds applications in several domains. (iii) GM food contains the antibiotic resistance gene itself. However, in India, some insect resistant cotton varieties expressing cry genes have reached onto farmers for cultivation. Therefore, spores of this bacterium kill larvae of certain insects. The use of bio-pesticides may reduce the application of synthetic chemicals for control of diseases, insect pests and weeds. This helps in formation of genetically modified insulin known as humulin. (ii) The transgenic crops may themselves become persistent weeds. (iii) The bacteria present in the intestine of the humans may take up the antibiotic resistance gene that is present in the GM food. Blue biotechnology: using marine biological systems for developing applications, products and services, examining sonar (already given as an example) and the streamline shapes of fish and sea mammals for developing submersibles; Green biotechnology: This is the application of biotech to the agricultural sciences. In today’s scenario, it is very difficult to feed a huge population with limited resources. Cyanobacteria secrete growth promoting substances, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, etc. Biotechnology has helped in serving the purpose. However, they are poor in biodiversity and traditional knowledge related to bio-resources. Biotechnology has application in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. Genetically Modified Crops: The plants, in which a functional foreign gene has been incorporated by … The gene that encodes coat protein is isolated from the genome of the virus that causes concerned disease. However, the protein brazzein was patented in U.S.A., where the gene encoding this protein was also isolated, sequenced and patented. Biopesticides are those biological agents which are used to control weeds, insects and pathogens. The Bt gene of a bacterium, Bacillus thruingiensis has been found to encode the toxins called endotoxins which have cidal effect of certain insect pests. Induction and Selection of Mutant 3. However, transgene symbol which has small letters is written in italics (cry), whereas the first letter of protein symbol is capital and written in Roman (Cry). (iii) In view of this, such crops may damage the environment in some mysterious manner. In turn, they cast hazardous effects on human health, and therefore, use of bio-pesticides has been suggested. It is thought, that transgenic crops may be harmful to the environment because of the following reasons: (i) The transgene may be transferred through pollen from GM crops to their wild relatives and such a gene transfer may make the weeds more persistent and damaging. Arguably the use of biotechnology in agriculture is deemed to be more effective than that of … Thus, a patent is the right granted by a government to prevent others from commercial use of his invention. The other example is of a soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis which produces a crystal (Cry) protein. Here this is noteworthy that the symbols for a gene (cry) and for its protein (Cry) product are the same. Such powerful corporations try to control the direction of whole agricultural research, including plant breeding. The most prominent area of biotechnology is the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs through genetic engineering. Environmental biotechnology makes use of living systems to solve environmental problems. A crop that expresses a cry gene is usually resistant to the group of insects for which the concerned Cry protein is toxic. Biofertilizers make a low cost and easy technique and can be used by small farmers. The gene encoding Cry protein is cry gene, which has been isolated and transferred into several crops. 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